Geoecology is a science that studies the characteristics, processes, and structure of the human environment. Its specialists are engaged in the protection of the biosphere from negative changes provoked by the economic activities of people.
How did Geoecology begin?
Geoecology first appeared in the 30s of the last century. The founder of the science was Carl Troll. The scientist studied vegetation, landscapes, climatic phenomena, and the relationship of various natural indicators, and it was he who first introduced the concept of Geoecology.
The subject matter of Geoecology
The main goal of geoecologists is to find the right balance between population, production, and nature. To do this, they study the factors of the impact of geological processes on the environment, their distribution, and concentration in space and time. They also investigate the destruction of the natural environment and its components and monitor its dynamics.
Geology tasks differ depending on the approach:
- Geographical approach. The science studies the geographical environment and the impact of society on it by analyzing the balance of energy and matter.
- Biological approach. The science studies various levels of the ecological system, up to the biosphere.
- Geological approach. The science studies the patterns of interaction between the lithosphere and the biosphere, depending on the specifics of human life.
Fundamental and practical problems of Geoecology
The fundamental problems of Geoecology include:
- study of the purpose of the shells of the Earth’s geosphere;
- the impact of global geodynamics on the biosphere and geosphere shells on climate change;
- geoactive zones, geochemical and geophysical fields of the Earth;
- environmental change caused by human economic activity;
- monitoring and managing the state of modern landscapes;
- land reclamation and rehabilitation, waste disposal and resource conservation;
- monitoring the development of dangerous natural processes, forecasting, and assessment of risks and hazards, prevention of the consequences of disasters;
- geoecological substantiation of safe storage and disposal of radioactive, toxic and, other wastes;
- study of negative anthropogenic and natural impacts on the environment;
- analysis of factors and forecast of emergencies that threaten environmental safety and their prompt identification;
- development and improvement of state norms and standards of environmental management.
Practical problems of geoecology:
- Study of component contamination as one of the important causes of environmental destruction. The goal of geoecology is to minimize the factors that provoke pollution by monitoring and taking special measures to protect the components of the environment that provide vital activity.
- Monitoring of risks and minimizing the negative consequences of environmental disasters. Technogenesis significantly increases the risk of environmental disasters with severe consequences.
Geoecologists pay special attention to studying the problems of soil destruction. The deterioration of the soil quality reduces its fertility. In most cases, this deterioration is caused by human economic activity, but natural disasters can also be the cause.